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REMOURBAN Site Tepebaşı

Country & City

  • Turkey
  • Tepebasi


Contact Information

Murat Aksu
City of Eskisehir

Tepebaşı is a municipality located in Eskişehir in the mid-western side of Anatolia with a population of 320 000. Yaşamköyü is a district of approximately 30 000 m2 with a built area of just under 10 000 m2. The area was built on 2007 by TOKI, the governmental organisation responsible for mass housing in Turkey. Although relatively newly built, similar to most buildings built before the Energy Efficiency Law that came into force recently, the district building stock consists of inefficiently constructed buildings in energy consumption terms. The typology of buildings in the district are characteristic of the relatively recently built but energy-inefficient and poorly insulated type of mass housing, typical of TOKI construction, and highly inconsiderate of the climate zone. In this respect the retrofit intervention in the district, within the REMOURBAN project, is thought to be highly relevant and exemplary for hundreds of thousands of residential buildings with similar characteristics, both in Eskişehir and also across Turkey.

The main selected residential development axis for the city is in the west, towards the present demo site. It was given careful consideration regarding the integration of the demo site’s mobility plans into the wider master plan. The highest population increase in Eskişehir, which is forecast to increase to around 950 000 by 2023 by the state statistical organisation, should happen in this axis. The selected demo site is in the middle of this development area and will present a smart and sustainable alternative to urban development in Eskişehir.

To achieve the expected impacts of 85 % of energy savings, 79 % reduction in CO2 emissions and direct involvement of 600 citizens , the project in Tepebaşı will follow an integrated approach, combining actions in the fields of low-energy districts, sustainable mobility, integrated infrastructure and society.

In the area of building renovation, ‘near-passive’ buildings will be targeted by the interventions at the demo site, as well as the realisation of a central district heating/cooling and hot water system, bringing significant energy saving. With regards to mobility, among the measures that will be implemented is an additional 6.2 km expansion to the cycling lanes and organising municipally owned e-bikes. All these measures are complemented by ICT technologies and strategies, including a building energy management system, bike rental operation and ‘City on Cloud’ city management system with all the energy, mobility and other data on a cloud system, which will be monitored by the municipality. The success of the actions is ensured through social and non-technical measures such as a citizen engagement strategy, a social media strategy, a stakeholder platform, a strategy for development of integrated urban plan, and common sustainable and smart evaluation procedures.

* Detailed information regarding the technical and financial performance will be available at a later stage.

The overall gross floor area of 10 570 m² has been refurbished in the Tepebaşı demo site. The annual final energy saving is 1559 MWh. The total CO2 emission savings amount to 476 tons of CO2 per year.

Regulatory & Administrative

Regulatory & Administrative
Encountered barriers

Legislation covering renewable energy grid connection, the type and number of permits, and government incentives are all in a state of flux in Turkey and subject to frequent changes. This issue has influenced photovoltaic system integration in the REMOURBAN demo site. Installed system capacities determine the specific, legally permitted procedures related to photovoltaic projects. These have also changed quite frequently and the authorities enacted a ‘freeze’ in 2016 while various issues were sorted out. As it stands, rooftop installations have been given an exemption from several steps in the procedures up to 50 kWp and it is thought that this value will be increased. All these issues have caused delays in applications and project flow.

Unfortunately, it is not possible to involve this issue in risk maps prepared at the beginning of the project as the character of the change is not predictable. The only measure appropriate would be to start the procedural process as soon as possible into the project. One possible solution considered was to sub-divide the installed capacity so as to remain below a certain capacity, thus escaping over-complicated procedures. This however entails separate grid connection points and subscriptions, thus increasing the costs.


The REMOURBAN interventions at Tepebaşı have been selected specifically to minimise outside interventions by alternate units of different administrations, such as ministries and metropolitan municipalities. The most important example of this is the selection of the demo site itself, which is owned by Tepebaşı municipality. However, it is important to realise that Tepebaşı, as a district municipality and not metropolitan municipality, has limited jurisdiction over important topics such as overall mobility planning and urban infrastructural decisions. The decisions regarding the path of the extended cycle routes for instance are one of the examples where there are overlapping authorities (metro municipality and Directorate of Highways under the Transport Ministry), and where up-front agreement is critical for the project.

This has generally been solved by discussions early on in the project design.


Silo mentality in large and multi-disciplinary institutions has been one of the major communication problems for the project. When interfaces include the metropolitan municipality of Eskişehir (hierarchically above Tepebaşı), relationships have not been satisfactory, especially where approval from the metro municipality is concerned.

This problem had to be tackled carefully via a higher intervention by the project sponsors and champions in the municipality, who had influence in overcoming the communication difficulties.


Encountered barriers

The almost full automation of the energy supply system requires significant behavioural changes by users. The extensive retrofit undertaken in the project not only radically reduces energy consumption in the buildings but also, through much better conditioning, significantly increases indoor air quality compared to before the project. Tenants’ typical reaction to freshen the room had been to open the windows, even in the winter. This habit may continue despite the much higher quality of air indoors.

Certain automatic controls and information interfaces on these aspects of the building will offset the previously explained behaviour gradually by providing information. 

Best Practices

Best Practices



The tenants were consulted both at the beginning and during the implementation of the project. As extensive retrofits were planned to be undertaken, significant resident displacement was sure to take place. Tenant consultation was therefore imperative in the project. The procedure utilised was consultation meetings. As the demo site belongs to the municipality, there are no financial concerns on the part of the tenants. However, potential comfort and environmental benefits have been conveyed to residents via the above-mentioned meetings. 


REMOURBAN has a specific task on citizen engagement. Through this deliverable, the relevant stakeholders that would be influenced by the project measures and the time and manner of their engagement have been noted. The university has carried out several inquiries and questionnaires regarding student evaluation of the proposed cycle routes and their usage.





The project is funded 100 % by the European Commission since the owner of the demo site is a public institution, the Tepebaşı local government. However, the municipality has to make the necessary investments in the project before receiving funds from the Commission. Nevertheless, there is a large share of pre-financing, which was received at the beginning of the project.


Since REMOURBAN is focused on high performance, the interventions were planned to reach the expected over-standard performances. Although the equipment and materials have been chosen with consideration for the best value for money, it can be said that there would be a higher return on investment if the project did not have certain high-performance goals.


* Detailed information regarding the technical and financial performance will be available at a later stage.

The actions and measures being implemented in Tepebaşı within the REMOURBAN project are:

Energy efficiency in buildings

  • Retrofitting the building envelope
    • Retrofitting 10 570 m2 with 57 dwellings and 386 residents
    • Near-passive buildings will be targeted by the interventions
    • The most important component of the energy category interventions will be heating/cooling energy saving implementations on the building envelope via strong insulation in exterior walls, triple-glazed window units, pipe and attic insulation.

Energy systems integration

  • District heating and cooling
    • Renewable heating and cooling – air sourced heat pump and chiller
  • Biomass boilers
    • Cogeneration (CHP)
    • Polygeneration
    • Thermal storage
  • Electrical energy storage
    • Critical loads will be served via battery storage that will be housed in the same building as the central heating plant
  • Photovoltaics
    • Electricity distributed generation
  • An approximately 150 kWp photovoltaic system will generate around 70 % of the power needs of the demo site. The PV system consists of a 100 kWp rooftop building-integrated photovoltaic installation on the custom-made roof of the social centre, in addition to 50 kWp implemented on the car park area
  • Thermal collectors
    • Solar thermal collectors for domestic hot water (parabolic vacuum pipe)
    • 27 kWt solar collectors
  • Smart street lighting
    • All lighting within buildings and street lighting in the district will be turned to low energy LED lighting with smart applications
Mobility & transport: 
  • Clean fuels and fuelling infrastructure
    • Incentives – integrated bike rental system, free parking for electric vehicles, municipality info kiosks for travel information
  • Electric, hybrid and clean vehicles
    • 30 electric bikes
    • 4 electric buses and minibuses for mass transit
    • 22 electric hybrid vehicles for the municipality fleet
  • Bicycle infrastructure
    • An additional 6.8 km of cycling lanes will be established. The bicycle lanes will be integrated into the urban transportation network via nodes and bike parks at the city rail (ESTRAM) stations. A fleet of 30 e-bikes will be rented out by the Tepebaşı municipality, and the necessary charging infrastructures will be installed in the appropriate locations.
  • Intermodality
    • Door-to-door multimodality transport – advantageous ticketing options (bikes + public transport system), public transportation smartcard, smart debit card applications

The Tepebaşı municipality will purchase 4 e-buses operating to/from the demo site and its surroundings as well as 22 hybrid cars that will exploit the charging infrastructures to be established.

  • Building energy management system
    • Advanced building energy management system – energy monitoring system (automatic and occupancy control, CO2 sensors, comfort controllers)
  • Neighbourhood energy management system
    • Energy monitoring and control system
  • Mobile applications for citizens
    • Advanced monitoring and energy performance visualisation ICT platform
    • Intelligent transport systems – smart phone app mobility, info interface to bike system
  • Strategic urban planning
    • Re-skilling centre in Tepebaşı, which will also act as a smart city and community demonstration site, with the smart and renewable energy urban management system in place
  • Urban data platform
    • City information platform – smart city monitoring portal
    • Shared infrastructure - energy data monitoring infrastructure access via the smart city monitoring portal

SRT data